Igor Yaptik aged five has been born and bred out on the Yamal tundra. He lives here all year round with his family who are part of a community of nomadic families. During winter his elder brothers and sisters go to school in the nearest city Yar-Sale 160 kilometres away. From the late Stalin period it has been compulsory that all children attend Soviet boarding schools. The enforced attendance of school in the late Stalin era was resisted by Nenet families, but today with their traditional way of life under threat, education is becoming increasingly important.