Russia

Population:
139,390,205 (July 2010 est.)
Area:
Total: 17,098,242 sq km
Land: 16,377,742 sq km
Water: 720,500 sq km

In the summer of 2009 the Future World Project accompanied two Greenpeace expeditions to east and north Russia where [tag permafrost permafrost thaw is affecting people, changing the landscape and damaging infrastructure. Travelling by train on Russia's expansive rail network for most of the journey, the team travelled 20,000 kilometres in 3 months. Visiting mining cities in the far east and the world's deepest lake, lake Baikal in the south, holding 20 percent of the Earth's surface freshwater. Returning west to Moscow braving days with vodka bottle toting soldiers on the Siberian Express and finally north to the last remaining nomadic herders of the Yamal Peninsula .

In the city Yakutsk in north-east Siberia the average temperature of the permanently frozen ground has risen by 2.7 degrees Celsius during the past 30 years. However, not only are the more southern parts of Siberia thawing, high latitude permafrost is melting beyond the Arctic circle .

Experts are calling the world's permafrost regions a ticking bomb. During the last 20 to 30 years permafrost temperatures have increased in Alaska, north-western Canada and northern Europe. In these regions warming is occurring twice as fast than anywhere else on earth. With approximately 1,000 billion tones of carbon in the form of methane gas and organic residues locked in these frozen grounds for thousands of years, scientists now debate the impact of this climate changing bomb being let off. If these estimates are true and vast quantities of solar heat trapping gases are released, not only Russia's infrastructure and communities will be affected as tipping points are triggered, catastrophic and runaway climate change will affect all life on the planet.

Sleighs storing winter clothing and warmer housing for the Nenets are scattered on the expansive landscape of the Yamal peninsula. The nomadic tribes leave their belongings in places they will come back to without fear of crime or theft.

Winter storageTaxi ride in ЯкутскBuilt on stiltsFlooded buildingMind the gapsInsulatedSinking roadsOn the moveThe freezing lineUnderground labAncient carbonAncient skullIce crystalsDated cracksBumpy streetsStreet fightersTransneftMining communityBank loansSubsiding landscapeOil to ChinaEthnographical museumIn the Village'Drunken' forestBoreal forestRainbows over the taigaRainbowInside a thermokarst lakeThermokarstFrozen organicsReleasing lakesDiverted riverSurface runMuddyInside the pipePipeline on permafrostDrunken polesBuckled railLargest reservoirSnow meltPrayer flagsSacred placeFlowers by the lakeBlowing in the WindThe view northView from OlkhonFishingThe 'Pearl of Siberia'Deepest in the worldSunset over BaikalAdornedBetween the housesYamal flag Town meets the tundraSledges in town Town before tundra Yar-Sale streetUnder construction Boat town LeninConstruction decorationConstruction site Around the housesLifeline to the tundra All above groundCulture clashFishing at sunsetReindeer shrineOfferingsSacred place Mosquito repellentSunriseThe first settlementNenets girlExperienced changeCollapsed landscapePole DancingDuskPlaying at DuskThe chumYasha Yaptik, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaValya Yaptik, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaChums at sunsetWashing lineYasha YaptikMidnight on a Siberian summer's eveShaman dollMoss diapersSick calfPacking up the chumPacking up and preparing to move500 kilometres per yearThe house and kitchen tableGathering the reindeerHerdingEveryone has a roleWaitingTrekking across the tundraEarlier ice meltSetting upBread makingThe new settlementSorting the netFishermenThe last generationKeeping in shapeWetlandsReindeer raceRepairing clothesInside the Yaptik chumRare life styleThe family chumFormer lakeCollapsing peninsulaYuribey sunsetArdjon Vanuyto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaSergey Vanuyto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaSveta Vanuyto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaNasta and Sergey Vanuyto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaNasta Vanuyto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaDinner PreperationLake landSkullEnd of the worldUnstableMethane bubblesThe water disappearedBed of former lake Tayoumato'Explosion'More mosquitoesBad omenSmoked fishPreservingThe Hoodi family with mosquitoBluebellsGetting warmerCollapsed river bankIce layersNenets GirlsExperiencedMethane storeSmall feetSettlement by the riverCompanionsIgor Serotetto, Yamal Peninsula, RussiaState DeerIn the NetCrossing the Yuribey Crossing the YuribeyShaking off WaterHardy womenTraditional RolesSurrounding thermokarst SkinningUsing everythingDrinking bloodHidden resourcesMoving bridge